290 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION a child as in a grown-up man "; and all the studies appropriate to manhood can be brought within the compass of the child if only they are properly graded. This unexpected deduction from the sensationalist conception of mind was subsequently worked out by him in the elaborate Course of Instruction (1775) which he set forth in thirteen volumes for the benefit of Louis XV s grandson, the Prince of Parma, who was his pupil. Claude Adrien Helvetius (1715-1771), professing much the same philosophy as Condillac, makes a very different application of it in regard to education. In his famous book, De I*Esprit (1757), he attempts to prove that all the faculties of mind have their origin in the senses, and concludes from this that there is no reason in the nature of mental organization for all the inequalities which are so conspicuous among civilized men. This is also the thesis of his posthumous work On Man, His Intellectual Faculties and His Education. " The mind," he remarks there, " is only the sum total of our ideas. Our ideas, says Locke, come to us from the senses, and from this principle as from mine it may be concluded that the mind is only an acquisition in us. To regard it as a pure gift of nature, as the effect of a particular organization, without being able to name the organ which produces it, is to bring back the occult qualities to philosophy. It is an unproven assumption. Experience and history alike show that the mind is independent of the greater or less fineness of the senses, and that men of different constitution are capable of having the same passions and ideas.'* But if men are all alike lacking in endowment at birth, whence come the differences of later life ? From chance and from education, answers Helvetius. If two people were brought up under identical conditions and enjoyed the like education, their minds would be exactly the same. From this it follows that the educator can make what he likes of his pupils by controlling the circumstances of their lives, and giving them the requisite edu- cation. The reason for all the defects of mankind is to be found in bad education. Take education out of the hands of the Church, reform the laws and the constitution of government, and an ex- cellent system of education might easily be worked out, both on the physical and the moral side, which would make the very best of every citizen. Now it may be an error to say, as Helvetius does, that there are no essential differences in the original endowments of men.